I can't remember if it's 8.1 specific, but in the Settings for SkyDrive you can enable sharing of apps between devices under Sync Settings. I think 8.1 should be out this week(?).
You'll need both devices to be signed into the same SkyDrive account I assume. Much the same as having multiple iOS devices signed in with the same Apple ID. It'll work in much the same way.
Your desktop may not look exactly the same if the screen sizes are different, but the apps, theme settings etc will be there. And if you use the devices for different purposes you may find the option to uninstall an app from one device only is a useful feature.