You may need to replace your USB Mass Storage Device driver (Device Manager > Universal Serial Bus controllers > USB Mass Storage Device). The Realtek driver may be causing the problem. Replace it with the generic Microsoft driver, 10.0.10240.16384. This driver should be available on your system, so no download is necessary. Then, if the 9/15 Firmware updates are not already on your SP3, you may have to do this again after they are installed by the MS update process.
There is allegedly a way to turn off driver updates in W10. Control Panel > All Control Panel Items > System > Advanced System Settings (which gives you the System Properties menu) > Hardware tab > Device Installation Settings. Select "No, let me choose what to do" and then "Never install driver software from Windows Update". Check or leave checked the option following that one. But I believe this is a placebo like so many user options with W10, as I have that selected and it appears that MS updates drivers anyway.
See here for
the original problem and here
about the 9/15 updates.